Leading Captive Silly Women

Leading Captive Silly Women

In the last days, we are told that “perilous” times will come because of the increase of sin. We are seeing this in our own nation, sadly. People have become “lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God.” Then we are given a warning about what these sinful people will do.

“For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts, Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth” (2 Timothy 3:6, 7).

And lead captive silly women; the coming of antichrist is after the working of Satan; as Satan attacked the woman, and not the man, and beguiled Eve and not Adam, so these his instruments and emissaries, work themselves into the affections of the weaker vessel, and into the weaker sort of women, as the diminutive word here used signifies; and gain upon them, instill their principles into them, attach them to their interests, captivate them to them, and lead them as they please:”

Yes, we are the weaker vessel and can be more easily deceived. Many women who call themselves Christians are not sound in doctrine. They don’t know the Word of God. They don’t “study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15). Instead of listening to biblically accurate male preachers/teachers/writers, they listen and learn from other women who teach them things that aren’t scriptural.

These silly women also watch godless shows on the television and bring evil into their homes. They don’t believe that “bad company corrupts good morals” as their good morals become corrupted by the ways of the world. Silly women, they hate those who teach truth and mock and bully them, instead of listening and learning the ways of the Lord.

“…laden with sins; covered with them, full of them, and so ready to receive any set of principles that would encourage them to continue in them; or else were pressed down with a sense of them, their consciences being awakened, and they under some concern on account of them, and so fit persons for such deceivers to gain upon, by pretending to great sanctity and religion, and by providing them with pardons and indulgences, and putting them upon penance, &c. though the former sense seems most agreeable, and is confirmed by what follows.”

What was once known as sinful, they now openly celebrate and try to force others to believe the same, thus leading them astray. They are foolish women who are tearing their homes down with their own hands. They fail to stand as guards in their homes from the attacks of the enemy but allow him full access into their homes instead. “Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof” (2 Timothy 3:5). There is no fruit of the Spirit in their lives, even though they speak about how spiritual they are to others.

“…led away with divers lusts. The Alexandrian copy adds, ‘and pleasures’; that is, sinful ones; though this may be understood, not of unclean lusts, but of the itch and desire after new teachers, and new doctrines, and practices, which prevail in weak women, and by which they are governed and led away.” (Gill’s Exposition)

“And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables” (2 Timothy 4:4).

Don’t be a silly, women. Don’t follow “new” teachers with “new” doctrines because they heard a “new and improved” word from the Lord. Be a like a Berean who searches the living and active Word to make sure that what you are learning and who you are learning from lines up with the pure wisdom of the Bible. Hide God’s Word deeply in your heart so that you won’t sin against Him and be easily led astray.

But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them; And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.
2 Timothy 3:14-17

37 thoughts on “Leading Captive Silly Women

  1. What I can see as a little example of this may seem small but to me it’s bothersome. At our church, my wife included, and yes I’ve mentioned it to her is wearing pro active clothes to church, example skinny jeans. My wife is beautiful. Very attractive but to me especially in the Lord’s dwelling, let’s not bare all like that—why?? Because it’s potentially drawing the attention of other married men. They may not get give a second glance But you can tell me when they see a woman dressed with all her curves to show, there mind might slip for a minute.

    So my question to you women is why dress like this? Tights(butts exposed) skinny jeans or whatever then be upset when a man has a look. I work very hard at training my eyes and mind when I see this on other woman.

    I’m not saying don’t be beautiful because woman are beautiful. How about though a little old fashioned and modest? To me that’s beautiful. Draw the attention of your own husband and not that of others. Anyway that’s my thought.

    1. Rob, that’s a good thought. I wonder that too. I wish the authority in their lives (husbands and fathers) would put their foot down, mine does. Because of my husband, neither my daughter nor I dress in such a manner. Even my daughter is always made to wear long shorts under her dresses just in case she does something that her dress may bounce up.

    2. Hi Rob, my husband and I were having a discussion very similar to your question not long ago.

      “So my question to you women is why dress like this? Tights(butts exposed) skinny jeans or whatever then be upset when a man has a look. I work very hard at training my eyes and mind when I see this on other woman.”

      It’s because when we catch a man scanning over our entire form we have a sudden, intense feeling of shame, of being stripped down and dirty. A strong conviction tells us that what we are wearing is wrong and we shouldn’t be dressing that way. But what do we do instead? We project our faults onto men so it takes the blame away from us.

      In my teenage years my parents monitored my wardrobe closely, but looking back there were times I could have done better, especially for long summer days spent at the beach. I should have worn a one-piece swimsuit. So yes, my answer is in part a confession.

      1. I disagree. We SHOULD feel that way. But I think women dress that way and they see a man looking at them, they get a rush. It’s like the rush of an affair. There’s a certain ‘this is so naughty! What if we get caught?’ It sounds odd but that’s why it is so attractive. It feels like the rush you had when you were first courting your husband. It sounds odd. But if you asked most women and girls, they would agree. Why would you dress like that if you felt shame and dirty?

        1. It’s a part of playing hard to get. Or if the man is ,a tried, it may be that they think it’s horrible that a guy would look that way at more women than just his wife.

          1. Oops, that meant to say, if the man is married or looks old in comparison to the woman in question.

        2. Why? Teenagers are not always as smart as they believe they are, all my friends were “in style” so I wanted to be as well, only…I…knew…better. I was speaking for myself and didn’t get the rush you speak of, instead I tried to excuse my sin but it didn’t work. I spent the entire day either wrapped in a towel or fully dressed. Yes, we should feel that way, I sure did.

    3. I don’t understand why women dress provocatively when they attend church. The Bible tells women to dress modestly, it’s very clear. So if a woman attends church it’s safe to assume she reads and follows the Bible. What’s the point of even going to church if she’s going to intentionally dress immodestly?
      That’s one of the ways we show our love for Christ – by dressing modestly. We can still be beautiful when we’re dressed modestly and femininely.

    4. In my opinion, it’s because we are conditioned by culture.
      Our consumerist culture tells us to value our appereance beyond anything else, so that we keep spending more and more money on it. Youthful looks have always been considered appealing in all times and all societies, but in our culture of mass advertising and consumerism this is put on a whole different level. Women magazines are all about appearance, serious newspapers have a fashion section, female politicians clothes (and those of wives of male politicians) are routinely scrutinised by the press, advertising is literally everywhere and peer pressure is also important, especially for young people or for those who need to fit in. There are even loans to finance cosmetic surgery!
      It’s not easy to be countercultural and for some it’s more difficult than for others. Just look at the popularity of tattoos. 10 years ago, only a minority of people had them, now they are mainstream especially for young people. This is a fine example of the power if peer pressure and the need to be trendy.

      1. I don’t get why people do/wear/act one thing at church, then do/wear/act totally differently in their everyday lives. What’s the point of even going to church, if that’s the case? It’s hypocritical.

  2. Tmichelle I’m not a prude or anything like that. It is just we are in a world of radical sin so why give the enemy any foot hold on us?
    Even thoughts can be sinful so we need to protect ourselves.

    When I mentioned this to my wife she gets upset saying you’re not my father so don’t tell me what to do or wear. No, but biblically speaking I feel it’s very disrespectful towards me to dress like that. Isn’t it?? tMichelle am I wrong on that? What do you think?

    1. You have every right to tell your wife if something is inappropriate to wear, Rob. Ken told me when we first got married that I couldn’t wear leggings so I stopped. Now, if I do wear them, they are under a dress for warmth.

      1. I agree with Lori. My husband told me from the beginning what was inappropriate to wear. I used to push back by saying I didn’t have anything anyone wanted to see but I would go ahead and change. I am sorry your wife is “tearing her house down with her own hands”. Perhaps Ken has some good advice for you in dealing with a rebellious wife. If you’d like I’ll ask my husband how he has always been able to effectively exert his authority over me in a loving way.

        1. “I’ll ask my husband how he has always been able to effectively exert his authority over me in a loving way.”

          I would like to hear the answer to that.

          1. Trey, I asked him and he gave me quite an involved answer. Before I get into it I have to preface it by saying. that he is very logical and cerebral. He gets his point across by asking questions, getting to the bottom of the issue and openly weighing what I say against God’s Word. He can easily spot any inconsistencies I took notes but this will still come out a bit choppy.This is what he said.

            He doesn’t belittle but explains his standards. He is consistent with his standards. [I know he says the same thing whether we are going to church or to the beach. Of course he doesn’t expect me to wear a skirt/dress at the beach like I do at church but I am just as covered with board shorts and a rash guard top, not a bikini or other skimpy bathing suit. I can literally walk into a church service with the outfit I wear for swimming and while I would be completely under dressed, I would not be embarrassed or embarrass my husband].

            He also said that he doesn’t make it about himself but about honoring God. Women cannot honor God if they refuse to honor their husbands as is commanded by God. Marriage is supposed to reflect the relationship between Jesus and the church (the church is the bride of Christ). If you love the Lord, than you should delight in His ways. While your husband is certainly capable of flaws since he is a human, you should also delight in pleasing him. If he is asking you to do something that is clearly not sinful, what justification do you have not to honor him? If you cannot honor your husband which is the symbol of Jesus, how do you think you are honoring Jesus?

            He also likened it to me expecting him to interact appropriately with women. He knows I would not be happy if he were flirtatious and charming with other women or he were trying to get their attention. If I feel like he should act differently around women or caution him about a certain woman, he listens. Even when he feels that I may be being too particular, he respects my feelings and does what I ask. If I felt that he needed other women’s attention and so sought it he knows I would be upset. He said it is the same thing. As a married couple we should not be looking to entice or be noticed by others outside of our marriage.

            Which brings him to the question of what it is that the women who dress this way think they are missing out on. He would ask directly if they do not care about stirring the feelings of other men. Or if they are wanting something from other men. What is it that you think you are missing out on? How do you think you are not better off by making this change? What do you get out of having other men being able to see down your blouse/the shape of your bottom? Do you want to be leered at? If there is something that feeds off of it, it is a spiritual issue that needs to be recalibrated. Or they do not believe their husbands about the inner workings of men. [As a side, this was my issue for a long time. My husband would tell me how other men thought but it took me a long time to really realize what he was saying. Also I feel differently about my outfits when I think about the feelings of the decrepit old men that may be stirred. It is easy to feel “okay” about younger men, and you may even want to downright show-off amongst other women, but no ones wants to be the object of an 80+ year old man’s fantasy].

            My husband also tries to frame it so that he talks less about himself and more about what he believes the Lord would have him to do to honor Him and that his wife needs to be a part of that.

            He would ask how I am honoring him. He would appeal to me by telling me how much he loves me and how beautiful he thinks I am. He would not want me to feel like I was being dictated to or dominated like I didn’t have a thought.

            We both have grown together and learned together and shared our thoughts together. He said “women have to take ownership of doing something harmful but if your wives are still dressing like this, by all means send me pictures!” 😉 That’s a joke!

            I asked him what he would do if I still refused to listen. He said that there are only two choices 1) to press harder or 2) to disengage. He spoke about the negatives of both of those choices. Honestly, I think he would disengage. Having a rebellious wife would really disgust him. Early in our marriage we had a misunderstanding and he could hardly even look at me. I’m sure he wouldn’t want to be seen with me and may take it so far that he would attend a different church.

      2. What you wear as a woman is incredibly important as a statement of your devotion to God and to Christian morality. As such a husband or father has every right to ask his wife or daughters to dress I a way which honours his beliefs.

        I have worn skirts and dresses exclusively and dressed modestly at my husband’s instigation from the day of our engagement and would never dress in a way which he felt was inappropriate.

    2. Rob,
      Is your father in law passed on or still alive? Would he agree with you or her on the subject? What was their relationship like? Was she very much a ‘daddy’s girl?’
      Just wondering as you said she tells you ‘you’re not my father’.

  3. Rob, I dress very conservatively in church, but that is because of the nature of my faith tradition. Both men and women dress conservatively in my parish and it is expected of us. However, I can say that throughout my life I have gotten attention from men for one reason only: I am a large chested woman. I cannot help that and it doesn’t matter what I wear, my chest stands out. Because of that, certain kinds of people can be judgmental. The only way I can hide it is to wear a potato sack, which I will not do. I say this because women can’t help having curves or being busty. So, I don’t think that I, or women who have my particular issues with their figure, should have to wear clothes that are like potato sacks just so men won’t lust. In other words, there is a balance. I think a woman can look attractive and should want to look attractive and not be made to feel guilty about it. On the other hand, there are, of course, lines to be drawn, such as avoiding wearing skin tight clothing and plunging necklines.

  4. We women have a special liability to men because of Eve. Our nature and weaknesses makes us need the close supervision of our fathers snd our husbands. The countries that enforce a strict dress code have the right idea. Our. country used to do that! I wish we had the morals and values of our great-grandmothers day! Women would dress right and men would treat them right! Now it’s a properly dressed woman that stands out!

    1. Other countries that enforce dress code are countries like Saudia Arabia and Iran where women have to dress in a burka and only eyes are allowed to be seen. Is that really a life you want to live? You can dress modest without going to the extreme.

      1. This is what one of our church preachers was saying recently. He has been sharing the Gospel in an Eastern country for a few years and noticed the difference between the way our western culture and that Eastern culture defines modesty. He said it’s not the practice that is important, but the principle. The *practice* of modesty looks different in different cultures/times but the *principle* of modesty is a heart issue and that is what is important. If we are intentionally wearing clothing that is immodest, and we know that is immodest, our heart needs work.
        An enforced dress code doesn’t help us be modest in our hearts, and that is where we have to hold God’s principles dear.

    2. It’s not because of Eve. God created women with those tendencies from the beginning. That’s why she was deceived by the serpent. She never should have made the decision to eat the fruit without asking her husband about it, but she did.

    3. I agree completely that it would be better if we went back to the moral standards which existed before feminism and that would include an obligation on all women to dress modestly and in decent respectable feminine clothes. What is wrong with that ?

      1. God does not impose His will upon anyone. When you force yourself upon someone, the natural result is rebellion. A woman must have a heart to choose to dress modestly and this is a work that must be done by the Holy Spirit…not men. You have only to look around at American History to see this.

  5. Oh may I not become a “silly woman!” Many of us who chose to dress modestly get flack because the naysayers accuse us of “calling attention” to ourselves. They accuse US of being immodest!

    Believe me if two women who happened to walk into a store and once is scantily dressed (attire of a harlot) and one is dressed modestly men are going to be checking out the one dressed like a harlot. The woman dressed modestly may get looks of admiration by some but not likely.

    1. A woman who dresses modestly will find that men will acknowledge her – usually with a nod and a smile and will not harass her. He will look at her face because she is not exposed and he will respect her.

      The men may check out a woman with the attire of a harlot but I can tell you what I know – they may seduce her (she is a silly woman) and fornicate with her but they will never respect or love her.

  6. Modesty first begins in the heart. Submission and modesty go hand in hand. If a women cannot submit to her own husband, but submits herself to the pastor this a problem. There is no more order in the church today. Men want to dress like women (skinny jeans, rompers, some are even wearing skirts and dresses). And women want to dress like men ( pants wearing). Pants are made for men. It’s nothing but confusion, rebellion aND sin in the Laodicean churches of today. Again modesty begins in the heart. If she is submitting to everything the pastor says but she cannot submit to you her husband she is out of order and needs a sharp rebuke. Men today have to put there foot down and command obedience, if a wife cannot obey her husband then she needs to leave. Plain and simple. She can go back to her father with her rebellious attitude..smh

    1. The wife is not a child where the husband can or should “put his foot down”. He is to lead his wife spiritually by his own example and by the washing of water by the word. You contradict your own conclusion by saying “modesty begins in the heart”. Indeed it does. What then, shall be accomplished and how shall God be glorified by the wife going home to her father when the bible says that a husband is to “leave his father and his mother and cleave unto his wife and the two shall become one flesh”? This is not wise counsel, nor is it biblical. It is the older women in the church that are exhorted to teach the younger women to “love their husbands…”.

      Nor is the husband given authority to force his wife to do something against her will (Jesus Himself does not force anyone to do anything against heir will, he compels us by love) or have you not heard the saying “the man forced against his will is of the same opinion still”? If her heart is not right (which it obviously is not) he will get absolutely nowhere and will only compound the problem. Let him then, deal with the real issue but in such a way as Jesus would.

      I am also inclined to think that a woman who dresses immodestly in her marriage likely dressed this way prior to her marriage. God gives instructions to the husband on what a virtuous wife is. Perhaps before selecting a wife he should make sure she is living up to God’s standards.

      As far as there being order in the church today, who is the church but those who are saved and indwelt by the Holy Spirit of God? There is order to be found there.

      The “churches’ I see today are apostate churches, who have ecumenical ties to the Roman Catholic church and have fallen away from the truth and cannot be compared to the true.

  7. if a person is wearing tights as pants, they are mislead. Tights are not pants. They are…tights.

    I listen to my husband in this area as well. He is OK with leggings, as long as my shirt covers my behind. Which it always does. Likewise, he does not allow skirts that are past my knees for myself or my daughters. But I know other conservatives that allow it higher. I think the modest approach is different for everyone, and we should refer to our husbands for their approval.

  8. Although this may not apply to absolutely all women, most women, married or not, dress provocatively strictly out of pride and selfishness. They want to entice by seeming hard to get yet easy to see, and it boosts their ego when they catch a man looking. “I’ve still got it,” they think to themselves. It’s even more of a “score” if the man is married (they see a ring), and double the score if he takes a peek while his wife is with him. “I’m so irresistible that even a married man is willing to visually ‘cheat’ on his wife over me.” And so the game goes on.

    I told my husband about this game a while back because he had noticed a few times the smirking faces some immodest women were making after they saw married men — some even with their children with them — taking second glaces or staring. Now he notices it all the time and he’s disgusted by it. He said it makes the sin much more exposed and less attractive to consider, since most men don’t want to be “had” or fall for someone’s sick game. Immodesty can also be dressed modestly yet make immodest facial expressions or suggestive phrases. When we teach our children about modesty, we first get to the heart of the topic, where it all begins.

  9. I’m bothered by some of the Christian movies where there are church scenes and the women are wearing tight dresses with peeks of cleavage showing. And it’s seen as acceptable!
    Silly women being led captive that’s for sure.

  10. I started to follow the Lord at 22. That is one of the first things the Holy Spirit was convicting me about. I started to feel naked when I would wear low-cut tops. I knew the Holy Spirit was convicting me of this. I will tell you why I did it in the past. Insecurity and identity. I did not have my identity in Christ and I was insecure. My looks were a way I could get attention. I realized that I had power in this world over men – seducing them into being with me because I wanted to be loved. I just wanted a man to love me. That was me and many girls I know. Men in the world like to abuse these types of women by sexually using them and throwing them away when they are done. My friends believing husband did this to her. He was a wolf for sure. But now she is so broken and so hurt and I see her dressing immodestly to wrongfully heal herself. Careful of a judgmental eye even though dressing immodest is wrong. Many women out there have been molested as children, beat by men etc. we never know their back story. Immodesty is an issue of the heart. Men have their physical strength but some women feel that their looks/sexuality are the only thing that’s good about them. God bless

  11. I wonder at women whose husbands tell them what they can and cannot wear. Are such women unable to read the scriptures to see what the Lord says about modesty?

    I wonder too at a husband who is appalled at his wife wearing “skinny jeans” to church because “married men” will see her curves and lust but thinks its okay to wear the “skinny jeans” outside the church (where ungodly men will look at her and lust)!

    When we were in the world we were conditioned by the world and the ever illusive “society” (a small group of patriarchs who control women and men with their ungodly thoughts) but once we have been brought out of the word we leave those conditions behind and learn to do well.

    I think a lot of the problem of dress has more to do with not reading or understanding the scriptures in terms of WHY God wants us to be modest. I think that if more (Christian) women would study the scriptures and/or older godly women would teach this there would be no need to have such conversations.

    God has so constructed a woman’s form to be appealing to a man – her hair, her natural scent, her womanliness – all these things were calculated so that when a man marries, he will greatly desire his wife and it will be a joy for he and his wife to obey the biblical command to “be fruitful and multiply….” Genesis 1:28 AKJV 1611.

    Prior to the fall the man was sufficiently attracted to and desirous of his wife and he loved her with a pure love. Once sin entered the world however, the desire for a woman remained but love was replaced with lust. I don’t think I have to tell anyone that desire combined with lust is a deadly combination in a sinful world as we can see the results of this tragedy all around us.

    In light of this, we can easily understand, that when SINFUL man looks upon a woman and sees her figure it arouses desire in him. The desire was put there by the Lord and is wholly natural…but was only intended for man to desire his wife. Sinful man has a tendency to lust after a woman and that is what he result of dressing immodestly will be. The lust is decidedly unnatural and is a result of the fall and something we have to deal with nonetheless. But this desire is INGRAINED in him, it is as much a part of his nature as nurturing is a part of a woman’s nature and IT WILL NOT CHANGE.

    Now. I do not condone rape regardless of how a woman is dressed, but I will say that when a woman dresses provocatively she opens the door for a man to lust after her. Worldly women do not understand this and so they scream, shout, and say there’s a “double standard but it is what it is, and as God made it what it is, I assure you they will not win.

    It is therefore imperative that a Christian man should control himself and teach himself to abstain from looking upon such women – one way is to think upon women as sisters.

    Can we not see, as women that we entice men to lust when we dress provocatively? Do we enjoy being ogled and objectified? God has not placed us here to be the object of sinful man’s lust! When we dress modestly it keeps us safe, we will not have to contend with a man’s lust or being the cause for a brother (or an unbeliever) to stumble at his Lord’s command. Modest dressing keeps men safe as well. God is not some arbitrary tyrant who is trying to make us unhappy. He loves his children and desires our happiness and peace and everything he commands us to do is not only for our benefit, but for the benefit of those around us.

    1. ms. dani weaker vessel –its more than just the males problem , theres MORE to the BIG picture ….You need to recognize that its not for a female to show / frame her body parts IN PUBLIC in ANY form! . Thats ONLY for her husband to see in PRIVATE NOT other men to see– Its real simple! A female cannot think she can dress to eroticize everywhere she goes. If she CANT understand these rules she is generally carrying a rebellious spirit and IS defiant ! No excuses! If a man meets a female who wants to date him etc and who cant cover up it should be a RED FLAG of her heart condition and extreme caution should be followed to this female because she may BE A DECOY from devil/hell! . As many wise women know >Immodesty and how a woman dresses scantilly is an DEEP psychological issue of the heart.<.
      Theres LOTS of good girls WHO KNOW their body is ONLY to be seen IN CLOSED QUARTERS BY their husbands ONLY and to cover it well in public !! If this DOESNT tell the facts then You are refusing The HolySpirit Given counsel !!! Amen !

  12. We as christians are all at a different spiritual levels. Some are seasoned saints (mature) in the word of God and dress more modestly in light of the truth and others are still in the process of learning (babes), and growing and getting nurtured in the truth of God’s word. So while some godly women dress modestly others may take a little more time to grow into the word and minds be renewed. But I believe the more we as God’s children stay in the word of God and get more light of God’s truth then the Holy Spirit will bring the conviction of sin and set us free from anything that is not of God’s will. Pray for our sisters in Christ with a sincere heart for God to guide them into all truth just as he promised us in his word. And prayerfully through faith the change will come. Sanctification of self is an ongoing process throughout the life of every believer. (Sanctify yourselves)…

  13. for a woman to “frame” her rear and body shape parts is 100 percent promoting eroticism, sexual advancements to males no matter what she says. . 2- many females will left behind after the rapture because they have left their small towns and moved to large city areas and have been enticed to live in various sins( i have seen many of the this very nature ). These are many females of different types and are moving from small rural areas like alabama , georgia ,kentucky, wyoming etc for the lure of making a better life/ Money etc etc but getting sidetracked into the corruptions of sin , sex alcohol , etc etc
    and many will be left after the rapture because of their decisions that led to such.

    if these females would of just stayed where they were, and remained humble down to earth recognizing the seriousness of their actions/ lack of contentment and accepted /married the man they were shown in their small town there would never of been such devastating problem of events. They created a far worse situation because being left behind after the rapture will be TERRIBLE times as which was never seen before .

    2 tim 3:6
    silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *